NAME
     chmod - change the permissions mode of a file

SYNOPSIS
     chmod [ -fR ] mode filename ...

SYNOPSIS
     /usr/5bin/chmod [ -fR ] mode filename ...

AVAILABILITY
     The System V version of this command is available  with  the
     System  V software installation option.  Refer to Installing
     SunOS  4.1  for  information  on  how  to  install  optional
     software.

DESCRIPTION
     Change the permissions (mode) of a file or files.  Only  the
     owner of a file (or the super-user) may change its mode.

     The mode of each named file is changed  according  to  mode,
     which may be absolute or symbolic, as follows.

  Absolute Modes
     An absolute mode is an octal number constructed from the  OR
     of the following modes:

      400    Read by owner.
      200    Write by owner.
      100    Execute (search in directory) by owner.
      040    Read by group.
      020    Write by group.
      010    Execute (search) by group.
      004    Read by others.
      002    Write by others.
      001    Execute (search) by others.
     4000    Set user ID on execution.
     2000    Set group ID on execution (this bit  is  ignored  if
             the  file  is  a directory; it may be set or cleared
             only using symbolic mode).
     1000    Sticky bit, (see chmod(2V) for more information).


  Symbolic Modes
     A symbolic mode has the form:

          [ who ] op permission [ op permission ] ...

     who is a combination of:

          u       User's permissions.
          g       Group permissions.
          o       Others.
          a       All, or ugo.

          If who is omitted, the default is a, but the setting of
          the  file  creation  mask (see umask in sh(1) or csh(1)
          for more information) is taken into account.  When  who
          is omitted, chmod will not override the restrictions of
          your user mask.

     op is one of:

          +       To add the permission.
          -       To remove the permission.
          =       To assign the permission explicitly (all  other
                  bits  for  that category, owner, group, or oth-
                  ers, will be reset).

     permission is any combination of:

          r       Read.
          w       Write.
          x       Execute.
          X       Give execute permission if the file is a direc-
                  tory  or if there is execute permission for one
                  of the other user classes.
          s       Set owner or group ID. This is only useful with
                  u or g.  Also, the set group ID bit of a direc-
                  tory may only be modified with `+' or `-'.
          t       Set the sticky bit to save program text between
                  processes.

          The letters u, g, or o indicate that permission  is  to
          be taken from the current mode for the user-class.

          Omitting permission is only useful with  `=',  to  take
          away all permissions.

     Multiple symbolic modes, separated by commas, may be  given.
     Operations are performed in the order specified.

SYSTEM V DESCRIPTION
     If who is omitted in a symbolic mode, it does not  take  the
     file creation mask into account, but acts as if who were a.

OPTIONS
     -f   Force.  chmod will not complain if it fails  to  change
          the mode of a file.

     -R   Recursively descend through directory  arguments,  set-
          ting  the  mode for each file as described above.  When
          symbolic links  are  encountered,  their  mode  is  not
          changed and they are not traversed.

EXAMPLES
     The first example denies write  permission  to  others,  the
     second makes a file executable by all if it is executable by
     anyone:

          example% chmod o-w file
          example% chmod +X file

SEE ALSO
     csh(1), ls(1V), sh(1), chmod(2V), chown(8)