csh - a shell (command interpreter) with a C-like syntax and
     advanced interactive features

     csh [ -bcefinstvVxX ] [ argument...  ]

     csh, the C shell, is a command  interpreter  with  a  syntax
     reminiscent  of  C.   It  provides  a  number  of convenient
     features for interactive use that are not available with the
     standard (Bourne) shell, including filename completion, com-
     mand aliasing, history  substitution,  job  control,  and  a
     number  of  built-in  commands.  As with the standard shell,
     the C shell provides variable, command and filename  substi-

  Initialization and Termination
     When first started, the C shell normally  performs  commands
     from  the  .cshrc file in your home directory, provided that
     it is readable and you either own it or your real  group  ID
     matches  its  group  ID. If the shell is invoked with a name
     that starts with `-', as when started by login(1), the shell
     runs  as  a login shell.  In this case, after executing com-
     mands from the .cshrc file, the shell executes commands from
     the  .login file in your home directory; the same permission
     checks as those for .cshrc are applied to this file.   Typi-
     cally, the .login file contains commands to specify the ter-
     minal type and environment.

     As a login shell terminates, it performs commands  from  the
     .logout  file  in  your  home directory; the same permission
     checks as those for .cshrc are applied to this file.

  Interactive Operation
     After startup processing is complete, an interactive C shell
     begins  reading  commands  from the terminal, prompting with
     hostname% (or hostname# for the super-user).  The shell then
     repeatedly performs the following actions: a line of command
     input is read and broken into words.  This sequence of words
     is  placed on the history list and then parsed, as described
     under USAGE, below.  Finally, the shell executes  each  com-
     mand in the current line.

  Noninteractive Operation
     When running noninteractively, the shell does not prompt for
     input  from the terminal.  A noninteractive C shell can exe-
     cute a command supplied as an argument on its command  line,
     or interpret commands from a script.

     -b   Force a  "break"  from  option  processing.  Subsequent
          command-line  arguments  are not interpreted as C shell
          options.  This allows  the  passing  of  options  to  a
          script  without  confusion.   The  shell does not run a
          set-user-ID script unless this option is present.

     -c   Read commands from the first filename  argument  (which
          must  be  present).   Remaining arguments are placed in
          argv, the argument-list variable.

     -e   Exit if a command terminates  abnormally  or  yields  a
          nonzero exit status.

     -f   Fast start. Read  neither  the  .cshrc  file,  nor  the
          .login file (if a login shell) upon startup.

     -i   Forced interactive. Prompt for command-line input, even
          if  the standard input does not appear to be a terminal
          (character-special device).

     -n   Parse (interpret), but do not execute  commands.   This
          option  can be used to check C shell scripts for syntax

     -s   Take commands from the standard input.

     -t   Read  and  execute  a  single  command  line.   A   `\'
          (backslash) can be used to escape each NEWLINE for con-
          tinuation of the command  line  onto  subsequent  input

     -v   Verbose. Set the verbose predefined  variable;  command
          input  is echoed after history substitution (but before
          other substitutions) and before execution.

     -V   Set verbose before reading .cshrc.

     -x   Echo.  Set the echo variable; echo commands  after  all
          substitutions and just before execution.

     -X   Set echo before reading .cshrc.

     Except with the options -c, -i, -s or -t, the  first  nonop-
     tion  argument  is  taken  to  be  the  name of a command or
     script.  It is passed as argument zero, and subsequent argu-
     ments  are  added  to  the argument list for that command or

     Refer to Doing More with SunOS for tutorial  information  on
     how to use the various features of the C shell.

  Filename Completion
     When enabled by setting the variable filec, an interactive C
     shell  can complete a partially typed filename or user name.
     When an unambiguous partial filename is followed by  an  ESC
     character on the terminal input line, the shell fills in the
     remaining characters of a matching filename from the working

     If a partial filename is followed by the EOF character (usu-
     ally  typed  as  CTRL-D), the shell lists all filenames that
     match.  It then prompts once again, supplying the incomplete
     command line typed in so far.

     When the last (partial) word begins with a  tilde  (~),  the
     shell  attempts  completion  with a user name, rather than a
     file in the working directory.

     The terminal bell signals errors or multiple  matches;  this
     can  be  inhibited  by setting the variable nobeep.  You can
     exclude files with certain suffixes by  listing  those  suf-
     fixes in the variable fignore.  If, however, the only possi-
     ble completion includes a suffix in  the  list,  it  is  not
     ignored. fignore does not affect the listing of filenames by
     the EOF character.

  Lexical Structure
     The shell splits input lines into words  at  SPACE  and  TAB
     characters,  except as noted below.  The characters &, |, ;,
     <, >, (, and ) form separate words;  if  paired,  the  pairs
     form  single  words.  These shell metacharacters can be made
     part of other  words,  and  their  special  meaning  can  be
     suppressed by preceding them with a `\' (backslash).  A NEW-
     LINE preceded by a \ is equivalent to a SPACE character.

     In addition, a string enclosed in matched pairs  of  single-
     quotes  ('),  double-quotes  ("), or backquotes (`), forms a
     partial word; metacharacters in such a string, including any
     SPACE or TAB characters, do not form separate words.  Within
     pairs of backquote (`) or  double-quote  (")  characters,  a
     NEWLINE  preceded  by a `\' (backslash) gives a true NEWLINE
     character.  Additional functions of each type of  quote  are
     described,  below, under Variable Substitution, Command Sub-
     stitution, and Filename Substitution.

     When the shell's input is not a terminal,  the  character  #
     introduces  a comment that continues to the end of the input
     line.  Its special meaning is suppressed when preceded by  a
     \ or enclosed in matching quotes.

  Command Line Parsing
     A simple command is composed of a sequence  of  words.   The
     first  word  (that  is  not  part  of  an  I/O  redirection)
     specifies the command to be executed.  A simple command,  or
     a  set  of  simple commands separated by | or |& characters,
     forms a pipeline.   With  |,  the  standard  output  of  the
     preceding command is redirected to the standard input of the
     command that follows.   With |&, both the standard error and
     the standard output are redirected through the pipeline.

     Pipelines can be separated by semicolons (;), in which  case
     they are executed sequentially. Pipelines that are separated
     by && or || form conditional sequences in which  the  execu-
     tion  of  pipelines on the right depends upon the success or
     failure, respectively, of the pipeline on the left.

     A pipeline or sequence can be enclosed within parentheses `(
     )'  to  form  a  simple command that can be a component in a
     pipeline or sequence.

     A sequence of pipelines can be executed  asynchronously,  or
     "in the background" by appending an `&'; rather than waiting
     for the sequence to finish  before  issuing  a  prompt,  the
     shell  displays  the job number (see Job Control, below) and
     associated process IDs, and prompts immediately.

  History Substitution
     History substitution allows you to use words  from  previous
     command lines in the command line you are typing.  This sim-
     plifies spelling corrections and the repetition  of  compli-
     cated commands or arguments.  Command lines are saved in the
     history list, the size of which is controlled by the history
     variable.   The most recent command is retained in any case.
     A history substitution begins with a  !  (although  you  can
     change  this with the histchars variable) and may occur any-
     where on the command  line;  history  substitutions  do  not
     nest.   The  ! can be escaped with \ to suppress its special

     Input lines containing history substitutions are  echoed  on
     the terminal after being expanded, but before any other sub-
     stitutions take place or the command gets executed.

  Event Designators
     An event designator is a reference to a  command-line  entry
     in the history list.
          !    Start a history substitution, except when followed
               by a SPACE character, TAB, NEWLINE, = or (.
          !!   Refer to the previous  command.  By  itself,  this
               substitution repeats the previous command.
          !n   Refer to command-line n.
          !-n  Refer to the current command-line minus n.
          !str Refer to the most  recent  command  starting  with
               Refer to the most recent command containing str.
               Insulate a history reference from adjacent charac-
               ters (if necessary).

  Word Designators
     A `:' (colon) separates the  event  specification  from  the
     word  designator.  It  can be omitted if the word designator
     begins with a  , $, *, -  or  %.   If  the  word  is  to  be
     selected  from^ the previous command, the second ! character
     can be omitted from the event specification.  For  instance,
     !!:1  and  !:1  both refer to the first word of the previous
     command, while !!$ and !$ both refer to the last word in the
     previous command. Word designators include:

          #    The entire command line typed so far.
          0    The first input word (command).
          n    The n'th argument.
               The first argument, that is, 1.
          $    The last argument.
          %    The word matched by (the most recent) ?s search.
          x-y  A range of words; -y abbreviates 0-y.
          *    All the arguments, or a null  value  if  there  is
               just one word in the event.
          x*   Abbreviates x-$.
          x-   Like x* but omitting word $.

     After the optional word designator, you can add  a  sequence
     of  one or more of the following modifiers, each preceded by
     a :.

          h    Remove a trailing pathname component, leaving  the
          r    Remove a trailing suffix of the form `.xxx', leav-
               ing the basename.
          e    Remove all but the suffix.
               Substitute r for l.
          t    Remove all leading  pathname  components,  leaving
               the tail.
          &    Repeat the previous substitution.
          g    Apply the change to  the  first  occurrence  of  a
               match  in  each  word, by prefixing the above (for
               example, g&).
          p    Print the new command but do not execute it.
          q    Quote the substituted words, escaping further sub-
          x    Like q, but break into words at each SPACE charac-
               ter, TAB or NEWLINE.

     Unless preceded by a g, the modification is applied only  to
     the  first  string  that  matches  l; an error results if no
     string matches.

     The left-hand side of substitutions are not regular  expres-
     sions,  but character strings.  Any character can be used as
     the delimiter in place of /.  A backslash quotes the  delim-
     iter character.  The character &, in the right hand side, is
     replaced by the text from the left-hand-side. The &  can  be
     quoted  with  a backslash. A null l uses the previous string
     either from a l or from a contextual scan string s from !?s.
     You  can  omit  the rightmost delimiter if a NEWLINE immedi-
     ately follows r; the rightmost ? in a context scan can simi-
     larly be omitted.

     Without an event specification, a history  reference  refers
     either  to  the  previous  command, or to a previous history
     reference on the command line (if any).

  Quick Substitution
      l r[ ]
     ^ ^  This  is  equivalent  to  the   history   substitution:
          !:s l r[ ].
             ^ ^  ^
     The C shell maintains a list of aliases that you can create,
     display,  and  modify  using the alias and unalias commands.
     The shell checks the first word in each command to see if it
     matches the name of an existing alias.  If it does, the com-
     mand is reprocessed with the alias definition replacing  its
     name;  the  history substitution mechanism is made available
     as though that command were the previous input  line.   This
     allows  history  substitutions,  escaped with a backslash in
     the definition, to  be  replaced  with  actual  command-line
     arguments  when  the alias is used.  If no history substitu-
     tion is called for, the arguments remain unchanged.

     Aliases can be nested. That is, an alias definition can con-
     tain the name of another alias.  Nested aliases are expanded
     before any history substitutions is applied. This is  useful
     in pipelines such as

          alias  lm 'ls  -l  \!*  |  more'

     which when  called,  pipes  the  output  of  ls(1V)  through

     Except for the first word, the name of  the  alias  may  not
     appear  in  its  definition, nor in any alias referred to by
     its definition. Such loops are detected, and cause an  error

  I/O Redirection
     The following metacharacters indicate  that  the  subsequent
     word  is  the name of a file to which the command's standard
     input, standard output, or  standard  error  is  redirected;
     this  word  is  variable,  command,  and  filename  expanded
     separately from the rest of the command.

     <              Redirect the standard input.

     <<word         Read the standard input, up to a line that is
                    identical  with word, and place the resulting
                    lines in a temporary file.   Unless  word  is
                    escaped  or quoted, variable and command sub-
                    stitutions  are  performed  on  these  lines.
                    Then,  invoke the pipeline with the temporary
                    file as its standard input.  word is not sub-
                    jected  to variable, filename or command sub-
                    stitution, and each line is  compared  to  it
                    before any substitutions are performed by the

     >   >!   >&   >&!
                    Redirect the standard output to a  file.   If
                    the  file  does not exist, it is created.  If
                    it does exist, it is overwritten; its  previ-
                    ous contents are lost.

                    When set,  the  variable  noclobber  prevents
                    destruction   of  existing  files.   It  also
                    prevents   redirection   to   terminals   and
                    /dev/null, unless one of the ! forms is used.
                    The & forms redirect both standard output and
                    the standard error (diagnostic output) to the

     >>   >&gt;&   >>!   >&gt;&!
                    Append the  standard  output.   Like  >,  but
                    places  output  at the end of the file rather
                    than overwriting it.  If noclobber is set, it
                    is an error for the file not to exist, unless
                    one of the ! forms  is  used.   The  &  forms
                    append  both  the standard error and standard
                    output to the file.

  Variable Substitution
     The C shell maintains a set of variables, each of  which  is
     composed of a name and a value.  A variable name consists of
     up to 20 letters and digits, and starts with a  letter  (the
     underscore is considered a letter).  A variable's value is a
     space-separated list of zero or more words.

     To refer to a variable's value, precede its name with a `$'.
     Certain  references  (described below) can be used to select
     specific words from the value, or to display other  informa-
     tion about the variable.  Braces can be used to insulate the
     reference from other characters in an input-line word.

     Variable substitution takes place after the  input  line  is
     analyzed,  aliases  are  resolved,  and I/O redirections are
     applied.  Exceptions to this are variable references in  I/O
     redirections  (substituted  at  the  time the redirection is
     made), and backquoted strings (see Command Substitution).

     Variable substitution can be suppressed by preceding  the  $
     with  a  \,  except  within  double-quotes  where  it always
     occurs.  Variable  substitution  is  suppressed  inside   of
     single-quotes.   A $ is escaped if followed by a SPACE char-
     acter, TAB or NEWLINE.

     Variables can be created, displayed, or destroyed using  the
     set  and  unset  commands.  Some variables are maintained or
     used by the shell.  For instance, the argv variable contains
     an  image  of  the  shell's argument list.  Of the variables
     used by the shell, a number are toggles; the shell does  not
     care what their value is, only whether they are set or not.

     Numerical values can be operated on as numbers (as with  the
     @  built-in).   With  numeric  operations, an empty value is
     considered to be zero; the second and  subsequent  words  of
     multiword  values  are ignored.  For instance, when the ver-
     bose variable is  set  to  any  value  (including  an  empty
     value), command input is echoed on the terminal.

     Command and filename substitution is subsequently applied to
     the words that result from the variable substitution, except
     when  suppressed  by  double-quotes,  when  noglob  is   set
     (suppressing  filename  substitution), or when the reference
     is quoted with the :q  modifier.   Within  double-quotes,  a
     reference  is  expanded  to  form  (a  portion  of) a quoted
     string; multiword values  are  expanded  to  a  string  with
     embedded  SPACE characters.  When the :q modifier is applied
     to the reference,  it  is  expanded  to  a  list  of  space-
     separated  words,  each of which is quoted to prevent subse-
     quent command or filename substitutions.

     Except as noted below, it is an error to refer to a variable
     that is not set.

     ${var}         These are replaced by words from the value of
                    var, each separated by a SPACE character.  If
                    var is an environment variable, its value  is
                    returned  (but  `:'  modifiers  and the other
                    forms given below are not available).

     ${var[index]}  These select only the  indicated  words  from
                    the  value  of var.  Variable substitution is
                    applied to index, which may  consist  of  (or
                    result   in)  a  either  single  number,  two
                    numbers separated by a `-', or  an  asterisk.
                    Words  are  indexed  starting  from  1; a `*'
                    selects all words.  If the first number of  a
                    range  is  omitted  (as  with  $argv[-2]), it
                    defaults to 1.  If the last number of a range
                    is  omitted  (as with $argv[1-]), it defaults
                    to $#var (the word  count).   It  is  not  an
                    error  for  a range to be empty if the second
                    argument is omitted (or within range).

     ${#name}       These give the number of words in  the  vari-

     $0             This substitutes the name of  the  file  from
                    which  command input is being read.  An error
                    occurs if the name is not known.

     ${n}           Equivalent to $argv[n].

     $*             Equivalent to $argv[*].

     The modifiers :e, :h, :q, :r, :t and :x can be applied  (see
     History  Substitution),  as  can  :gh,  :gt  and :gr.  If {}
     (braces) are used, then the modifiers must appear within the
     braces.   The  current  implementation  allows only one such
     modifier per expansion.

     The following references may not be modified with  :  modif-

          Substitutes the string 1 if var is set or 0  if  it  is
          not set.

     $?0  Substitutes 1 if the current input filename  is  known,
          or 0 if it is not.

     $$   Substitute the process number of the (parent) shell.

     $<   Substitutes a line from the  standard  input,  with  no
          further  interpretation  thereafter.  It can be used to
          read from the keyboard in a C shell script.

  Command and Filename Substitutions
     Command and filename substitutions are  applied  selectively
     to  the arguments of built-in commands.  Portions of expres-
     sions that are not evaluated are  not  expanded.   For  non-
     built-in commands, filename expansion of the command name is
     done separately from that of the  argument  list;  expansion
     occurs in a subshell, after I/O redirection is performed.

  Command Substitution
     A command enclosed by backquotes (`...`) is performed  by  a
     subshell.  Its standard output is broken into separate words
     at each SPACE character, TAB and  NEWLINE;  null  words  are
     discarded.   This text replaces the backquoted string on the
     current command line.  Within  double-quotes,  only  NEWLINE
     characters  force  new  words;  SPACE and TAB characters are
     preserved.  However, a final  NEWLINE  is  ignored.   It  is
     therefore  possible  for  a  command substitution to yield a
     partial word.

  Filename Substitution
     Unquoted words containing any of the characters *, ?,  [  or
     {,  or  that begin with ~, are expanded (also known as glob-
     bing) to an alphabetically sorted list of filenames, as fol-

     *              Match any (zero or more) characters.

     ?              Match any single character.

     [ ... ]        Match any single character  in  the  enclosed
                    list(s)  or  range(s).  A list is a string of
                    characters.  A  range   is   two   characters
                    separated  by  a minus-sign (-), and includes
                    all the characters in between  in  the  ASCII
                    collating sequence (see ascii(7)).

     { str, str, ...  }
                    Expand to each string  (or  filename-matching
                    pattern) in the comma-separated list.  Unlike
                    the pattern-matching expressions  above,  the
                    expansion  of  this  construct is not sorted.
                    For instance, {b,a} expands to `b' `a',  (not
                    `a' `b').  As special cases, the characters {
                    and }, along with the string {},  are  passed

     ~[             user ] Your home directory, as  indicated  by
                    the  value  of  the variable home, or that of
                    user, as indicated by the password entry  for

     Only the patterns *, ?  and [...] imply pattern matching; an
     error results if no filename matches a pattern that contains
     them.  The `.' (dot character), when it is the first charac-
     ter  in  a  filename  or pathname component, must be matched
     explicitly.  The / (slash) must also be matched explicitly.

  Expressions and Operators
     A number of C shell built-in commands accept expressions, in
     which  the  operators are similar to those of C and have the
     same precedence.  These expressions typically appear in  the
     @,  exit,  if, set and while commands, and are often used to
     regulate the flow of control for executing  commands.   Com-
     ponents of an expression are separated by white space.

     Null or missing values are considered 0.  The result of  all
     expressions   are   strings,  which  may  represent  decimal

     The following C shell operators are grouped in order of pre-

          (...)               grouping
          ~                   one's complement
          !                   logical negation
          *   /   %           multiplication, division, remainder
                              (These are right associative, which
                              can  lead  to  unexpected  results.
                              Group  combinations explicitly with
          +   -               addition, subtraction  (also  right
          <<   >>             bitwise shift left,  bitwise  shift
          <   >   <=   >=     less than, greater than, less  than
                              or  equal to, greater than or equal
          ==   !=   =~   !~   equal to, not equal  to,  filename-
                              substitution      pattern     match
                              (described    below),     filename-
                              substitution pattern mismatch
          &                   bitwise AND
                              bitwise XOR (exclusive or)
          |                   bitwise inclusive OR
          &&                  logical AND
          ||                  logical OR

     The operators: ==, !=, =~, and !~ compare their arguments as
     strings;  other operators use numbers.  The operators =~ and
     !~ each check whether or not a string to the left matches  a
     filename  substitution  pattern  on the right.  This reduces
     the need for switch statements when pattern-matching between
     strings is all that is required.
     Also available are file inquiries:
          -r filename
                    Return true,  or  1  if  the  user  has  read
                    access. Otherwise it returns false, or 0.
          -w filename
                    True if the user has write access.
          -x filename
                    True if the user has execute  permission  (or
                    search permission on a directory).
          -e filename
                    True if file exists.
          -o filename
                    True if the user owns file.
          -z filename
                    True if file is of zero length (empty).
          -f filename
                    True if file is a plain file.
          -d filename
                    True if file is a directory.

     If  file  does  not  exist  or  is  inaccessible,  then  all
     inquiries return false.

     An inquiry as to the success of a command is also available:

          { command }
                    If command runs successfully, the  expression
                    evaluates to true, 1.  Otherwise it evaluates
                    to false 0.  (Note that, conversely,  command
                    itself  typically returns 0 when it runs suc-
                    cessfully,  or  some  other   value   if   it
                    encounters  a problem.  If you want to get at
                    the status directly, use  the  value  of  the
                    status variable rather than this expression).

  Control Flow
     The shell contains a number of commands to regulate the flow
     of control in scripts, and within limits, from the terminal.
     These commands operate by forcing the shell either to reread
     input  (to  loop), or to skip input under certain conditions
     (to branch).

     Each occurrence of a foreach, switch, while,  if...then  and
     else built-in must appear as the first word on its own input

     If the shell's input is not seekable and  a  loop  is  being
     read,  that  input  is  buffered.   The shell performs seeks
     within the  internal  buffer  to  accomplish  the  rereading
     implied by the loop.  (To the extent that this allows, back-
     ward goto commands will succeed on nonseekable inputs.)

  Command Execution
     If the command is a C shell built-in, the shell executes  it
     directly.   Otherwise, the shell searches for a file by that
     name with execute access.  If the command-name contains a /,
     the  shell  takes it as a pathname, and searches for it.  If
     the command-name does not contain a /, the shell attempts to
     resolve  it  to  a pathname, searching each directory in the
     path variable for the command.  To  speed  the  search,  the
     shell uses its hash table (see the rehash built-in) to elim-
     inate directories that have no applicable files.  This hash-
     ing  can  be  disabled  with  the  -c or -t, options, or the
     unhash built-in.

     As a special case, if there is no  /  in  the  name  of  the
     script  and there is an alias for the word shell, the expan-
     sion of the shell alias is prepended (without modification),
     to  the  command  line.  The  system attempts to execute the
     first word of this  special  (late-occurring)  alias,  which
     should  be  a full pathname.  Remaining words of the alias's
     definition, along with the  text  of  the  input  line,  are
     treated as arguments.

     When a pathname is found that  has  proper  execute  permis-
     sions,  the  shell  forks a new process and passes it, along
     with its arguments to the kernel (using the execve(2V)  sys-
     tem call).  The kernel then attempts to overlay the new pro-
     cess with the desired program.  If the file is an executable
     binary  (in a.out(5) format) the kernel succeeds, and begins
     executing the new process.  If the file is a text file,  and
     the  first line begins with #!, the next word is taken to be
     the pathname of a  shell  (or  command)  to  interpret  that
     script.   Subsequent  words  on  the first line are taken as
     options for that shell.  The kernel invokes  (overlays)  the
     indicated  shell,  using  the name of the script as an argu-

     If neither of the above conditions holds, the kernel  cannot
     overlay  the  file  (the execve(2V) call fails); the C shell
     then attempts to execute the file by spawning a  new  shell,
     as follows:

     +  If the first character of the file is a #, a C  shell  is

     +  Otherwise, a standard (Bourne) shell is invoked.

  Signal Handling
     The shell normally ignores QUIT  signals.   Background  jobs
     are immune to signals generated from the keyboard, including
     hangups (HUP).  Other signals have the  values  that  the  C
     shell  inherited from its environment.  The shell's handling
     of interrupt and terminate signals  within  scripts  can  be
     controlled  by  the onintr built-in.  Login shells catch the
     TERM signal; otherwise this signal is  passed  on  to  child
     processes.   In  no case are interrupts allowed when a login
     shell is reading the .logout file.

  Job Control
     The shell  associates  a  numbered  job  with  each  command
     sequence,  to  keep track of those commands that are running
     in the background or have been  stopped  with  TSTP  signals
     (typically  CTRL-Z).   When  a  command, or command sequence
     (semicolon separated list), is  started  in  the  background
     using  the  &  metacharacter, the shell displays a line with
     the job number in brackets, and a list of associated process

          [1] 1234

     To see the current list of jobs, use the jobs built-in  com-
     mand.   The job most recently stopped (or put into the back-
     ground if none are stopped) is referred to  as  the  current
     job, and is indicated with a `+'.  The previous job is indi-
     cated with a `-'; when the  current  job  is  terminated  or
     moved  to  the foreground, this job takes its place (becomes
     the new current job).

     To manipulate jobs, refer to the bg, fg, kill,  stop  and  %

     A reference to a job begins with  a  `%'.   By  itself,  the
     percent-sign refers to the current job.

     %   %+   %%    The current job.
     %-             The previous job.
     %j             Refer to job j as in: `kill -9 %j'.  j can be
                    a  job  number,  or  a  string  that uniquely
                    specifies the command-line by  which  it  was
                    started;  `fg  %vi'  might bring a stopped vi
                    job to the foreground, for instance.
     %?string       Specify the job for  which  the  command-line
                    uniquely contains string.

     A job running in the background stops when  it  attempts  to
     read  from  the terminal.  Background jobs can normally pro-
     duce output, but this can be suppressed using the `stty tos-
     top' command.

  Status Reporting
     While running interactively, the shell tracks the status  of
     each job and reports whenever a finishes or becomes blocked.
     It normally displays a message to this effect as it issues a
     prompt,  so  as  to  avoid disturbing the appearance of your
     input.  When set, the notify  variable  indicates  that  the
     shell  is to report status changes immediately.  By default,
     the notify command marks the current process; after starting
     a background job, type notify to mark it.

  Built-In Commands
     Built-in commands are executed within the  C  shell.   If  a
     built-in  command  occurs  as  any  component  of a pipeline
     except the last, it is executed in a subshell.

     :         Null command.  This command  is  interpreted,  but
               performs no action.

     alias [ name [ def ] ]
               Assign def to the alias name.  def is  a  list  of
               words    that   may   contain   escaped   history-
               substitution metasyntax.  name is not  allowed  to
               be alias or unalias.  If def is omitted, the alias
               name is displayed along with its  current  defini-
               tion.   If  both  name  and  def  are omitted, all
               aliases are displayed.

     bg [%job] ...
               Run the current or specified  jobs  in  the  back-

     break     Resume execution after  the  end  of  the  nearest
               enclosing  foreach  or  while loop.  The remaining
               commands on the current line are  executed.   This
               allows  multilevel  breaks to be written as a list
               of break commands, all on one line.

     breaksw   Break from a switch, resuming after the endsw.

     case label:
               A label in a switch statement.

     cd [ dir ]
     chdir [ dir ]
               Change the shell's working directory to  directory
               dir.   If no argument is given, change to the home
               directory of the user.  If dir is a relative path-
               name not found in the current directory, check for
               it in those directories listed in the cdpath vari-
               able.   If  dir  is  the  name of a shell variable
               whose value starts with a /, change to the  direc-
               tory named by that value.

     continue  Continue execution of the nearest enclosing  while
               or foreach.

     default:  Labels the default case  in  a  switch  statement.
               The  default  should  come  after all case labels.
               Any remaining commands on  the  command  line  are
               first executed.

     dirs [ -l ]
               Print the directory  stack,  most  recent  to  the
               left;  the  first  directory  shown is the current
               directory.  With the -l argument, produce an unab-
               breviated  printout;  use  of  the  ~  notation is

     echo [ -n ] list
               The words in list are written to the shell's stan-
               dard  output,  separated by SPACE characters.  The
               output is terminated with a NEWLINE unless the  -n
               option is used.

     eval  argument ...
               Reads the arguments as input  to  the  shell,  and
               executes  the  resulting command(s).  This is usu-
               ally used to execute  commands  generated  as  the
               result  of command or variable substitution, since
               parsing occurs before  these  substitutions.   See
               tset(1) for an example of how to use eval.

     exec command
               Execute command in place  of  the  current  shell,
               which terminates.

     exit [ (expr) ]
               The shell exits, either  with  the  value  of  the
               status  variable,  or with the value of the speci-
               fied by the expression expr.

     fg % [ job ]
               Bring the current or specified job into the  fore-

     foreach var (wordlist)
     end       The variable  var  is  successively  set  to  each
               member  of  wordlist.   The  sequence  of commands
               between this command and the matching end is  exe-
               cuted  for  each  new value of var.  (Both foreach
               and end must appear alone on separate lines.)

               The built-in command continue may be used to  con-
               tinue  the  loop prematurely and the built-in com-
               mand break to terminate it prematurely.  When this
               command  is  read  from  the terminal, the loop is
               read up once prompting with ?  before  any  state-
               ments in the loop are executed.

     glob wordlist
               Perform  filename  expansion  on  wordlist.   Like
               echo,  but  no \ escapes are recognized. Words are
               delimited by null characters in the output.

     goto label
               The  specified  label  is  filename  and   command
               expanded  to yield a label.  The shell rewinds its
               input as much as possible and searches for a  line
               of  the  form label: possibly preceded by SPACE or
               TAB characters.   Execution  continues  after  the
               indicated line.  It is an error to jump to a label
               that occurs between a while or for  built-in,  and
               its corresponding end.

     hashstat  Print a statistics line indicating  how  effective
               the  internal hash table has been at locating com-
               mands (and avoiding execs).  An exec is  attempted
               for  each  component  of  the  path where the hash
               function indicates a possible  hit,  and  in  each
               component that does not begin with a `/'.

     history [ -hr ] [ n ]
               Display the history list; if n is  given,  display
               only the n most recent events.

               -r   Reverse the order  of  printout  to  be  most
                    recent first rather than oldest first.
               -h   Display  the  history  list  without  leading
                    numbers.  This is used to produce files suit-
                    able for sourcing  using  the  -h  option  to

     if (expr) command
               If the specified expression evaluates to true, the
               single  command with arguments is executed.  Vari-
               able substitution on command happens early, at the
               same  time it does for the rest of the if command.
               command must be a simple command, not a  pipeline,
               a  command  list, or a parenthesized command list.
               Note: I/O  redirection  occurs  even  if  expr  is
               false,  when  command  is  not executed (this is a

     if (expr) then
     else if (expr2) then
     endif     If expr is true, commands up to the first else are
               executed.    Otherwise,  if  expr2  is  true,  the
               commands between the else if and the  second  else
               are  executed.   Otherwise,  commands  between the
               else and the endif are executed.   Any  number  of
               else  if  pairs  are  allowed,  but only one else.
               Only one endif is needed, but it is required.  The
               words  else  and  endif must be the first nonwhite
               characters on a line.  The if must appear alone on
               its input line or after an else.)

     jobs[ -l ]
               List the active jobs under job control.

               -l   List process IDs, in addition to  the  normal

     kill [ -sig ] [ pid ] [ %job ] ...
     kill -l   Send the TERM (terminate) signal, by  default,  or
               the signal specified, to the specified process ID,
               the job indicated, or the  current  job.   Signals
               are  either  given by number or by name.  There is
               no default.  Typing kill does not send a signal to
               the current job.  If the signal being sent is TERM
               (terminate) or HUP (hangup), then the job or  pro-
               cess is sent a CONT (continue) signal as well.

               -l   List the signal names that can be sent.

     limit [ -h ] [ resource [ max-use ] ]
               Limit the consumption by the  current  process  or
               any  process it spawns, each not to exceed max-use
               on the specified resource.  If max-use is omitted,
               print  the  current limit; if resource is omitted,
               display all limits.

               -h   Use hard limits instead of the  current  lim-
                    its.   Hard  limits  impose  a ceiling on the
                    values  of  the  current  limits.   Only  the
                    super-user may raise the hard limits.

               resource is one of:

                    cputime        Maximum CPU seconds  per  pro-
                    filesize       Largest single file allowed.
                    datasize       Maximum data  size  (including
                                   stack) for the process.
                    stacksize      Maximum  stack  size  for  the
                    coredumpsize   Maximum size of  a  core  dump
                    descriptors    Maximum  value  for   a   file

               max-use is a number, with an optional scaling fac-
               tor, as follows:

                    nh             Hours (for cputime).
                    nk             n  kilobytes.  This   is   the
                                   default for all but cputime.
                    nm             n megabytes  or  minutes  (for
                    mm:ss          Minutes and seconds (for  cpu-

     login [ username|-p ]
               Terminate a login shell and invoke login(1).   The
               .logout  file  is  not  processed.  If username is
               omitted, login prompts for the name of a user.

               -p   Preserve the current environment (variables).

     logout    Terminate a login shell.

     nice [ +n|-n ] [ command ]
               Increment the process priority value for the shell
               or  for  command  by  n.   The higher the priority
               value, the lower the priority of  a  process,  and
               the slower it runs.  When given, command is always
               run in a subshell, and the restrictions placed  on
               commands  in simple if commands apply.  If command
               is omitted, nice  increments  the  value  for  the
               current shell.  If no increment is specified, nice
               sets the nice value  to  4.   The  range  of  nice
               values  is  from -20 through 19.  Values of n out-
               side this range set the value to the lower, or  to
               the higher boundary, respectively.

               +n        Increment the process priority value  by
               -n        Decrement by n.  This  argument  can  be
                         used only by the super-user.

     nohup [ command ]
               Run command with HUPs ignored.  With no arguments,
               ignore  HUPs throughout the remainder of a script.
               When given, command is always run in  a  subshell,
               and  the restrictions placed on commands in simple
               if commands apply.  All processes detached with  &
               are effectively nohup'd.

     notify [ %job ] ...
               Notify the user asynchronously when the status  of
               the current, or of specified jobs, changes.

     onintr [ - | label]
               Control the action of  the  shell  on  interrupts.
               With  no  arguments,  onintr  restores the default
               action of the shell  on  interrupts.   (The  shell
               terminates shell scripts and returns to the termi-
               nal command input level).  With  the  -  argument,
               the  shell  ignores  all interrupts.  With a label
               argument, the shell executes a goto label when  an
               interrupt  is  received  or  a  child process ter-
               minates because it was interrupted.

     popd [+n]
               Pop the directory stack, and cds to  the  new  top
               directory.   The  elements  of the directory stack
               are numbered from 0 starting at the top.

               +n      Discard the n'th entry in the stack.

     pushd [+n | dir]
               Push a directory onto the directory  stack.   With
               no arguments, exchange the top two elements.

               +n   Rotate the n'th entry to the top of the stack
                    and cd to it.
               dir  Push the current working directory  onto  the
                    stack and change to dir.

     rehash    Recompute the internal hash table of the  contents
               of  directories  listed  in  the  path variable to
               account for new commands added.

     repeat count command
               Repeat command count times command is  subject  to
               the  same  restrictions  as  with  the one-line if

     set [var [ = value ] ]
     set var[n] = word
               With no arguments, set displays the values of  all
               shell  variables.   Multiword values are displayed
               as a parenthesized list.  With  the  var  argument
               alone,  set  assigns  an empty (null) value to the
               variable var.  With arguments of the  form  var  =
               value set assigns value to var, where value is one

                    word        A single word (or quoted string).
                    (wordlist)  A space-separated list  of  words
                                enclosed in parentheses.

               Values are command and  filename  expanded  before
               being  assigned.   The  form  set  var[n]  =  word
               replaces the n'th word in a multiword  value  with

     setenv [ VAR [ word ] ]
               With no arguments, setenv displays all environment
               variables.    With   the  VAR  argument  sets  the
               environment variable VAR to have an  empty  (null)
               value.   (By convention, environment variables are
               normally given upper-case names.)  With  both  VAR
               and  word  arguments  setenv  sets the environment
               variable NAME to the value  word,  which  must  be
               either a single word or a quoted string.  The most
               commonly used environment variables,  USER,  TERM,
               and   PATH,  are  automatically  imported  to  and
               exported from the csh variables  user,  term,  and
               path;  there  is  no need to use setenv for these.
               In addition, the shell sets  the  PWD  environment
               variable  from  the  csh variable cwd whenever the
               latter changes.

     shift [ variable ]
               The components of argv, or variable, if  supplied,
               are shifted to the left, discarding the first com-
               ponent.  It is an error for the variable not to be
               set, or to have a null value.

     source [ -h ] name
               Reads commands from name.  source commands may  be
               nested,  but  if  they  are  nested too deeply the
               shell may run out of file descriptors.   An  error
               in  a  sourced  file  at  any level terminates all
               nested source commands.

               -h      Place commands from the file name  on  the
                       history list without executing them.

     stop [%job] ...
               Stop the current or specified background job.

     suspend   Stop the shell in its tracks, much as  if  it  had
               been  sent  a  stop  signal with ^Z.  This is most
               often used to stop shells started by su.

     switch (string)
     case label:
     endsw     Each label is successively  matched,  against  the
               specified  string,  which  is  first  command  and
               filename expanded.  The file metacharacters  *,  ?
               and  [...]  may  be used in the case labels, which
               are variable expanded.   If  none  of  the  labels
               match before a "default" label is found, execution
               begins after the default label.  Each case  state-
               ment  and the default statement must appear at the
               beginning of a line.  The command breaksw  contin-
               ues  execution after the endsw.  Otherwise control
               falls through subsequent case and  default  state-
               ments as with C.  If no label matches and there is
               no default, execution continues after the endsw.

     time [ command ]
               With no argument, print a summary of time used  by
               this  C  shell and its children.  With an optional
               command, execute command and print  a  summary  of
               the time it uses.

     umask [ value ]
               Display the file creation mask.   With  value  set
               the  file creation mask.  value is given in octal,
               and is XORed with the permissions of 666 for files
               and  777  for directories to arrive at the permis-
               sions for new files.  Common values  include  002,
               giving complete access to the group, and read (and
               directory search) access to others, or 022, giving
               read  (and directory search) but not write permis-
               sion to the group and others.

     unalias pattern
               Discard aliases that match (filename substitution)
               pattern.  All aliases are removed by unalias *.

     unhash    Disable the internal hash table.

     unlimit [ -h ] [ resource ]
               Remove a limitation on resource.  If  no  resource
               is  specified,  then  all resource limitations are
               removed.  See the description of the limit command
               for the list of resource names.

               -h      Remove corresponding  hard  limits.   Only
                       the super-user may do this.

     unset pattern
               Remove variables whose names match (filename  sub-
               stitution)  pattern.  All variables are removed by
               `unset *'; this has noticeably  distasteful  side-

     unsetenv variable
               Remove variable  from  the  environment.   Pattern
               matching, as with unset is not performed.

     wait      Wait for background jobs  to  finish  (or  for  an
               interrupt) before prompting.

     while (expr)
     end       While expr is true (evaluates to non-zero), repeat
               commands  between  the  while and the matching end
               statement.  break and continue may be used to ter-
               minate  or  continue  the  loop  prematurely.  The
               while and end must appear  alone  on  their  input
               lines.   If  the  shell's  input is a terminal, it
               prompts for commands with  a  question-mark  until
               the  end  command is entered and then performs the
               commands in the loop.

     %[ job ] [ & ]
               Bring the current or indicated job  to  the  fore-
               ground.   With the ampersand, continue running job
               in the background.

     @ [ var =expr ]
     @ [ var[n] =expr ]
               With no arguments,  display  the  values  for  all
               shell  variables.   With  arguments,  the variable
               var, or the n'th word in the value of var, to  the
               value  that  expr  evaluates  to.  (If [n] is sup-
               plied,  both  var  and  its  n'th  component  must
               already exist.)

               If the expression contains the characters >, <,  &
               or  |,  then  at  least  this part of expr must be
               placed within parentheses.

               The operators *=, +=, etc., are available as in C.
               The  space separating the name from the assignment
               operator is optional.  Spaces are, however, manda-
               tory  in  separating components of expr that would
               otherwise be single words.

               Special postfix operators, ++ and -- increment  or
               decrement name, respectively.

  Environment Variables and Predefined Shell Variables
     Unlike the standard shell, the C shell maintains a  distinc-
     tion  between environment variables, which are automatically
     exported to processes it invokes, and shell variables, which
     are  not.   Both  types  of  variables are treated similarly
     under variable substitution.  The shell sets  the  variables
     argv,  cwd,  home,  path,  prompt,  shell,  and  status upon
     initialization.  The shell copies the  environment  variable
     USER  into the shell variable user, TERM into term, and HOME
     into home, and copies each back into the respective environ-
     ment  variable whenever the shell variables are reset.  PATH
     and path are similarly handled.  You need only set path once
     in  the  .cshrc or .login file. The environment variable PWD
     is set from cwd whenever the latter changes.  The  following
     shell variables have predefined meanings:

     argv              Argument list.  Contains the list of  com-
                       mand   line   arguments  supplied  to  the
                       current invocation  of  the  shell.   This
                       variable determines the value of the posi-
                       tional parameters $1, $2, and so on.

     cdpath            Contains  a  list  of  directories  to  be
                       searched  by  the cd, chdir, and popd com-
                       mands,  if  the  directory  argument  each
                       accepts  is  not  a  subdirectory  of  the
                       current directory.

     cwd               The full pathname of  the  current  direc-

     echo              Echo commands (after substitutions),  just
                       before execution.

     fignore           A list of filename suffixes to ignore when
                       attempting filename completion.  Typically
                       the single word `.o'.

     filec             Enable filename completion, in which  case
                       the  CTRL-D  character CTRL-D) and the ESC
                       character have special  significance  when
                       typed  in  at  the end of a terminal input

                       EOT  Print a list of  all  filenames  that
                            start with the preceding string.
                       ESC  Replace the preceding string with the
                            longest unambiguous extension.

     hardpaths         If set, pathnames in the  directory  stack
                       are  resolved  to contain no symbolic-link

     histchars         A two-character string.  The first charac-
                       ter replaces ! as the history-substitution
                       character.  The second replaces the  carat
                       ( ) for quick substitutions.
     history           The number of lines saved in  the  history
                       list.   A very large number may use up all
                       of the C shell's memory.  If not set,  the
                       C  shell  saves  only the most recent com-

     home              The user's home directory.   The  filename
                       expansion of ~ refers to the value of this

     ignoreeof         If set, the shell ignores EOF from  termi-
                       nals.   This protects against accidentally
                       killing a C shell by typing a CTRL-D.

     mail              A list of files where the C  shell  checks
                       for  mail.  If the first word of the value
                       is a number, it specifies a mail  checking
                       interval in seconds (default 5 minutes).

     nobeep            Suppress the bell during  command  comple-
                       tion  when asking the C shell to extend an
                       ambiguous filename.

     noclobber         Restrict output redirection so that exist-
                       ing  files  are not destroyed by accident.
                       > redirections can only  be  made  to  new
                       files.   >>  redirections can only be made
                       to existing files.

     noglob            Inhibit filename  substitution.   This  is
                       most   useful   in   shell   scripts  once
                       filenames (if any)  are  obtained  and  no
                       further expansion is desired.

     nonomatch         Returns the filename substitution pattern,
                       rather  than  an  error, if the pattern is
                       not  matched.   Malformed  patterns  still
                       result in errors.

     notify            If set, the shell notifies you immediately
                       as jobs are completed, rather than waiting
                       until just before issuing a prompt.

     path              The list of directories in which to search
                       for  commands.   path  is initialized from
                       the environment variable PATH, which the C
                       shell  updates  whenever  path changes.  A
                       null word specifies the current directory.
                       The  default  is  typically:  (.  /usr/ucb
                       /usr/bin).  If  path  becomes  unset  only
                       full  pathnames will execute.  An interac-
                       tive C shell will normally hash  the  con-
                       tents  of  the  directories  listed  after
                       reading  .cshrc,  and  whenever  path   is
                       reset.  If new commands are added, use the
                       rehash command to update the table.

     prompt            The string an interactive C shell  prompts
                       with.   Noninteractive  shells  leave  the
                       prompt variable unset.  Aliases and  other
                       commands  in the .cshrc file that are only
                       useful interactively, can be placed  after
                       the  following  test:  `if ($?prompt == 0)
                       exit', to reduce startup time  for  nonin-
                       teractive  shells.   A  !  in  the  prompt
                       string is replaced by  the  current  event
                       number.   The  default prompt is hostname%
                       for mere mortals,  or  hostname#  for  the

     savehist          The number of lines from the history  list
                       that are saved in ~/.history when the user
                       logs out.  Large values for savehist  slow
                       down the C shell during startup.

     shell             The file in which  the  C  shell  resides.
                       This  is  used in forking shells to inter-
                       pret files that have execute bits set, but
                       that are not executable by the system.

     status            The status returned  by  the  most  recent
                       command.    If   that  command  terminated
                       abnormally, 0200 is added to  the  status.
                       Built-in  commands  that  fail return exit
                       status 1, all other built-in commands  set
                       status to 0.

     time              Control automatic timing of commands.  Can
                       be  supplied  with one or two values.  The
                       first is the reporting  threshold  in  CPU
                       seconds.  The  second  is a string of tags
                       and text  indicating  which  resources  to
                       report  on.   A  tag is a percent sign (%)
                       followed by  a  single  upper-case  letter
                       (unrecognized tags print as text):

                            %D   Average amount of unshared  data
                                 space used in Kilobytes.
                            %E   Elapsed (wallclock) time for the
                            %F   Page faults.
                            %I   Number  of  block  input  opera-
                            %K   Average amount of unshared stack
                                 space used in Kilobytes.

                            %M   Maximum real memory used  during
                                 execution of the process.
                            %O   Number of  block  output  opera-
                            %P   Total CPU time - U (user) plus S
                                 (system)  - as a percentage of E
                                 (elapsed) time.
                            %S   Number of seconds  of  CPU  time
                                 consumed by the kernel on behalf
                                 of the user's process.
                            %U   Number of seconds  of  CPU  time
                                 devoted to the user's process.
                            %W   Number of swaps.
                            %X   Average amount of shared  memory
                                 used in Kilobytes.

                       The default summary display  outputs  from
                       the %U, %S, %E, %P, %X, %D, %I, %O, %F and
                       %W tags, in that order.

     verbose           Display each command after history substi-
                       tution takes place.

     The environment variables  LC_CTYPE,  LANG,  and  LC_default
     control  the character classification throughout all command
     line parsing.  These variables are checked in the  following
     order:  LC_CTYPE,  LANG, and LC_default.  When a valid value
     is found,  remaining  environment  variables  for  character
     classification  are ignored.  For example, a new setting for
     LANG does not override the current valid character classifi-
     cation rules of LC_CTYPE.  When none of the values is valid,
     the shell character classification defaults to  the  POSIX.1
     "C" locale.

     ~/.cshrc            Read at beginning of execution  by  each
     ~/.login            Read by login  shells  after  .cshrc  at
     ~/.logout           Read by login shells at logout.
     ~/.history          Saved history for use at next login.
     /tmp/sh*            Temporary file for `<<'.
     /etc/passwd         Source of home directories for `~name'.

     login(1),   printenv(1),   sh(1),    tset(1),    access(2V),
     execve(2V),   fork(2V),   pipe(2V),   termio(4),   a.out(5),
     environ(5V), locale(5), ascii(7), iso_8859_1(7)

     Doing More with SunOS
     Getting Started

     You have stopped jobs.
          You attempted to exit the C  shell  with  stopped  jobs
          under job control.  An immediate second attempt to exit
          will succeed, terminating the stopped jobs.

     Words can be no longer than  1024  characters.   The  system
     limits argument lists to 1,048,576 characters.  However, the
     maximum number of arguments to a command for which  filename
     expansion applies is 1706.  Command substitutions may expand
     to no more characters than are allowed in the argument list.
     To  detect  looping, the shell restricts the number of alias
     substitutions on a single line to 20.

     When a command is restarted from a stop,  the  shell  prints
     the  directory  it  started in if this is different from the
     current directory; this can be misleading (that  is,  wrong)
     as the job may have changed directories internally.

     Shell  built-in  functions  are  not  stoppable/restartable.
     Command sequences of the form a ; b ; c are also not handled
     gracefully when stopping is attempted.  If  you  suspend  b,
     the  shell  never executes c.  This is especially noticeable
     if the expansion results from an alias.  It can  be  avoided
     by  placing  the  sequence in parentheses to force it into a

     Control over terminal output after processes are started  is
     primitive; use the Sun Window system if you need better out-
     put control.

     Multiline shell procedures should be provided, as  they  are
     with the standard (Bourne) shell.

     Commands within loops, prompted for by ?, are not placed  in
     the history list.

     Control structures should be parsed rather than being recog-
     nized  as  built-in commands.  This would allow control com-
     mands to be placed anywhere, to be combined with |,  and  to
     be used with & and ; metasyntax.

     It should be possible to use the : modifiers on  the  output
     of  command  substitutions.   There  are two problems with :
     modifier usage on variable substitutions:  not  all  of  the
     modifiers are available, and only one modifier per substitu-
     tion is allowed.

     The g (global) flag in history substitutions applies only to
     the first match in each word, rather than all matches in all
     words. The standard text editors consistently do the  latter
     when given the g flag in a substitution command.

     Quoting conventions are confusing.   Overriding  the  escape
     character  to  force  variable  substitutions  within double
     quotes is counterintuitive and inconsistent with the  Bourne

     Symbolic links can fool the  shell.  Setting  the  hardpaths
     variable alleviates this.

     `set path' should remove duplicate pathnames from the  path-
     name  list.   These  often occur because a shell script or a
     .cshrc     file      does      something      like      `set
     path=(/usr/local  /usr/hosts  $path)'  to  ensure  that  the
     named directories are in the pathname list.

     The only way to direct  the  standard  output  and  standard
     error separately is by invoking a subshell, as follows:

          example% (command > outfile) >& errorfile

     Although robust enough for general use, adventures into  the
     esoteric  periphery  of  the  C  shell may reveal unexpected