NAME
     emacs - GNU project Emacs

SYNOPSIS
     emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ... ]

DESCRIPTION
     GNU Emacs is a version of Emacs, written by  the  author  of
     the original (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman.
     The primary documentation of GNU Emacs is in the  GNU  Emacs
     Manual,  which  you can read on line using Info, a subsystem
     of Emacs.  Please look there  for  complete  and  up-to-date
     documentation.   This  man page is updated only when someone
     volunteers to do so; the Emacs maintainers' priority goal is
     to minimize the amount of time this man page takes away from
     other more useful projects.
     The user functionality of GNU Emacs  encompasses  everything
     other  Emacs  editors  do, and it is easily extensible since
     its editing commands are written in Lisp.

     Emacs has an extensive interactive help  facility,  but  the
     facility  assumes that you know how to manipulate Emacs win-
     dows and buffers.  CTRL-h (backspace or CTRL-h)  enters  the
     Help   facility.   Help  Tutorial  (CTRL-h  t)  requests  an
     interactive tutorial which can teach beginners the fundamen-
     tals  of  Emacs  in  a few minutes.  Help Apropos (CTRL-h a)
     helps you find a command given its functionality, Help Char-
     acter  (CTRL-h  c) describes a given character's effect, and
     Help Function (CTRL-h f) describes  a  given  Lisp  function
     specified by name.

     Emacs's Undo can undo several steps of modification to  your
     buffers, so it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.

     GNU  Emacs's  many  special  packages  handle  mail  reading
     (RMail)  and sending (Mail), outline editing (Outline), com-
     piling (Compile), running  subshells  within  Emacs  windows
     (Shell),   running   a   Lisp  read-eval-print  loop  (Lisp-
     Interaction-Mode), and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).

     There is an extensive reference manual, but users  of  other
     Emacses  should  have little trouble adapting even without a
     copy.  Users new to Emacs will be able to use basic features
     fairly  rapidly by studying the tutorial and using the self-
     documentation features.

     Emacs Options

     The following options are of general interest:

     file    Edit file.

     +number Go to the line specified by number (do not insert  a
             space between the "+" sign and the number).

     -q      Do not load an init file.

     -u user Load user's init file.

     -t file Use specified file as the terminal instead of  using
             stdin/stdout.   This  must  be  the  first  argument
             specified in the command line.

     The following options are lisp-oriented (these  options  are
     processed in the order encountered):

     -f function
             Execute the lisp function function.

     -l file Load the lisp code in the file file.

     The following options are useful when  running  Emacs  as  a
     batch editor:

     -batch  Edit in batch mode.  The editor will  send  messages
             to  stdout.   This  option  must be the first in the
             argument list.  You must use -l and  -f  options  to
             specify files to execute and functions to call.

     -kill   Exit Emacs while in batch mode.

     Using Emacs with X

     Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window  sys-
     tem.   If you run Emacs from under X windows, it will create
     its own X window to display in.  You will probably  want  to
     start  the  editor  as  a background process so that you can
     continue using your original window.

     Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

     -rn name
             Specifies the program name which should be used when
             looking up defaults in the user's X resources.  This
             must be the first option specified  in  the  command
             line.

     -name name
             Specifies the name which should be assigned  to  the
             Emacs window.

     -r      Display the Emacs window in reverse video.

     -i      Use the "kitchen sink" bitmap icon  when  iconifying
             the Emacs window.

     -font font, -fn font
             Set the Emacs window's font  to  that  specified  by
             font.  You  will  find  the  various  X fonts in the
             /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory.  Note that Emacs  will
             only  accept  fixed  width  fonts.   Under  the  X11
             Release 4 font-naming conventions, any font with the
             value  "m"  or "c" in the eleventh field of the font
             name is a  fixed  width  font.   Furthermore,  fonts
             whose  name  are  of  the form widthxheight are gen-
             erally fixed width,  as  is  the  font  fixed.   See
             xlsfonts(1) for more information.

             When you specify a font, be  sure  to  put  a  space
             between the switch and the font name.

     -b pixels
             Set the Emacs window's border width to the number of
             pixels specified by pixels. Defaults to one pixel on
             each side of the window.

     -ib pixels
             Set the window's internal border width to the number
             of pixels specified by pixels. Defaults to one pixel
             of padding on each side of the window.

     -geometry geometry
             Set the Emacs window's width, height,  and  position
             as  specified.  The geometry specification is in the
             standard X format; see X(1)  for  more  information.
             The  width  and  height are specified in characters;
             the default is 80 by 24.

     -fg color
             On color displays, sets the color of the text.

             See the file  /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt  for  a  list  of
             valid color names.

     -bg color
             On color displays, sets the color  of  the  window's
             background.

     -bd color
             On color displays, sets the color  of  the  window's
             border.

     -cr color
             On color displays, sets the color  of  the  window's
             text cursor.

     -ms color
             On color displays, sets the color  of  the  window's
             mouse cursor.

     -d displayname, -display displayname
             Create the Emacs window on the display specified  by
             displayname.   Must be the first option specified in
             the command line.

     -nw     Tells Emacs not to use its special interface  to  X.
             If  you  use this switch when invoking Emacs from an
             xterm(1) window, display is  done  in  that  window.
             This  must be the first option specified in the com-
             mand line.

     You can set X default values for your Emacs windows in  your
     .Xresources file (see xrdb(1)).  Use the following format:

          emacs.keyword:value

     where value specifies the default value  of  keyword.  Emacs
     lets you set default values for the following keywords:

     font (class Font)
             Sets the window's text font.

     reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
             If reverseVideo's value is set  to  on,  the  window
             will be displayed in reverse video.

     bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
             If bitmapIcon's value is set to on, the window  will
             iconify into the "kitchen sink."

     borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
             Sets the window's border width in pixels.

     internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
             Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.

     foreground (class Foreground)
             For color displays, sets the window's text color.

     background (class Background)
             For color displays,  sets  the  window's  background
             color.

     borderColor (class BorderColor)
             For color displays, sets the color of  the  window's
             border.

     cursorColor (class Foreground)
             For color displays, sets the color of  the  window's
             text cursor.

     pointerColor (class Foreground)
             For color displays, sets the color of  the  window's
             mouse cursor.

     geometry (class Geometry)
             Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as  described
             above).

     title (class Title)
             Sets the title of the Emacs window.

     iconName (class Title)
             Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

     If you try to set color values while using a black and white
     display,  the  window's characteristics will default as fol-
     lows: the foreground color will be set to black,  the  back-
     ground  color will be set to white, the border color will be
     set to grey, and the text and mouse cursors will be  set  to
     black.

     Using the Mouse

     The following lists the mouse button bindings for the  Emacs
     window under X11.

     MOUSE BUTTON         FUNCTION
     left                 Set point.
     middle               Paste text.
     right                Cut text into X cut buffer.
     SHIFT-middle         Cut text into X cut buffer.
     SHIFT-right          Paste text.
     CTRL-middle          Cut text into X cut buffer and kill it.
     CTRL-right           Select this window, then split it  into
                          two windows.  Same as typing CTRL-x 2.
     CTRL-SHIFT-left      X buffer  menu--hold  the  buttons  and
                          keys  down,  wait  for  menu to appear,
                          select buffer, and release.  Move mouse
                          out of menu and release to cancel.
     CTRL-SHIFT-middle    X help menu--pop up index card menu for
                          Emacs help.
     CTRL-SHIFT-right     Select window with  mouse,  and  delete
                          all  other  windows.   Same  as  typing
                          CTRL-x 1.

MANUALS
     You can order printed copies of the GNU  Emacs  Manual  from
     the  Free  Software Foundation, which develops GNU software.
     See the file ORDERS for ordering information.
     Your local Emacs maintainer might also  have  copies  avail-
     able.   As  with  all  software  and  publications from FSF,
     everyone is permitted to make and distribute copies  of  the
     Emacs manual.  The TeX source to the manual is also included
     in the Emacs source distribution.

FILES
     /usr/local/info - files for the Info  documentation  browser
     (a  subsystem  of Emacs) to refer to.  Currently not much of
     Unix is documented here, but the complete text of the  Emacs
     reference manual is included in a convenient tree structured
     form.

     /usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/src  -  C  source  files   and
     object files

     /usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/lisp - Lisp source  files  and
     compiled  files that define most editing commands.  Some are
     preloaded; others are autoloaded from  this  directory  when
     used.

     /usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/etc -  various  programs  that
     are used with GNU Emacs, and some files of information.

     /usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.* - contains the docu-
     mentation strings for the Lisp primitives and preloaded Lisp
     functions of GNU Emacs.  They are stored here to reduce  the
     size of Emacs proper.

     /usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DIFF discusses  GNU  Emacs
     vs. Twenex Emacs;
     /usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/etc/CCADIFF   discusses    GNU
     Emacs vs. CCA Emacs;
     /usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/etc/GOSDIFF   discusses    GNU
     Emacs vs. Gosling Emacs.
     /usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/etc/SERVICE    lists    people
     offering  various  services  to  assist  users of GNU Emacs,
     including education, troubleshooting, porting and customiza-
     tion.
     These files also have information useful to  anyone  wishing
     to  write  programs  in  the  Emacs Lisp extension language,
     which has not yet been fully documented.

     /usr/local/lib/emacs/lock - holds lock files that  are  made
     for all files being modified in Emacs, to prevent simultane-
     ous modification of one file by two users.

     /usr/local/lib/emacs/$VERSION/$ARCHITECTURE/cpp  -  the  GNU
     cpp,  needed  for building Emacs on certain versions of Unix
     where the standard cpp cannot handle long names for macros.

     /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt - list of valid X color names.

BUGS
     There is a mailing  list,  bug-gnu-emacs@prep.ai.mit.edu  on
     the    internet   (ucbvax!prep.ai.mit.edu!bug-gnu-emacs   on
     UUCPnet), for reporting Emacs bugs and  fixes.   But  before
     reporting  something as a bug, please try to be sure that it
     really is a bug, not  a  misunderstanding  or  a  deliberate
     feature.   We  ask you to read the section ``Reporting Emacs
     Bugs'' near the end of the reference manual (or Info system)
     for hints on how and when to report bugs.  Also, include the
     version number of the Emacs you are  running  in  every  bug
     report that you send in.

     Do not expect a personal answer to a bug report.   The  pur-
     pose  of reporting bugs is to get them fixed for everyone in
     the next release, if  possible.   For  personal  assistance,
     look  in  the  SERVICE file (see above) for a list of people
     who offer it.

     Please do not send anything but bug reports to this  mailing
     list.   Send  requests  to  be added to mailing lists to the
     special list info-gnu-emacs-request@prep.ai.mit.edu (or  the
     corresponding  UUCP  address).   For  more information about
     Emacs      mailing      lists,      see       the       file
     /usr/local/emacs/etc/MAILINGLISTS.  Bugs tend actually to be
     fixed if they can be isolated, so it is in your interest  to
     report  them  in  such  a way that they can be easily repro-
     duced.

     Bugs that I know about are: shell will not  work  with  pro-
     grams running in Raw mode on some Unix versions.

UNRESTRICTIONS
     Emacs is free; anyone may redistribute copies  of  Emacs  to
     anyone  under  the  terms stated in the Emacs General Public
     License, a copy of which accompanies each copy of Emacs  and
     which also appears in the reference manual.

     Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged with dis-
     tributions  of Unix systems, but it is never included in the
     scope of any license covering those systems.  Such inclusion
     violates  the  terms on which distribution is permitted.  In
     fact, the primary purpose of the General Public  License  is
     to  prohibit anyone from attaching any other restrictions to
     redistribution of Emacs.

     Richard Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs,
     and  urges  that  you  contribute your extensions to the GNU
     library.  Eventually GNU (Gnu's Not Unix) will be a complete
     replacement  for  Berkeley  Unix.   Everyone will be free to
     use, copy, study and change the GNU system.


SEE ALSO
     X(1), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

AUTHORS
     Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free  Software
     Foundation.  Joachim Martillo and Robert Krawitz added the X
     features.