NAME ls - list the contents of a directory SYNOPSIS ls [ -aAcCdfFgilLqrRstu1 ] filename ... SYSTEM V SYNOPSIS /usr/5bin/ls [ -abcCdfFgilLmnopqrRstux ] filename ... AVAILABILITY The System V version of this command is available with the System V software installation option. Refer to Installing SunOS 4.1 for information on how to install optional software. DESCRIPTION For each filename which is a directory, ls lists the con- tents of the directory; for each filename which is a file, ls repeats its name and any other information requested. By default, the output is sorted alphabetically. When no argu- ment is given, the current directory is listed. When several arguments are given, the arguments are first sorted appropriately, but file arguments are processed before directories and their contents. In order to determine output formats for the -C, -x, and -m options, /usr/5bin/ls uses an environment variable, COLUMNS, to determine the number of character positions available on one output line. If this variable is not set, the terminfo database is used to determine the number of columns, based on the environment variable TERM. If this information can- not be obtained, 80 columns are assumed. Permissions Field The mode printed under the -l option contains 10 characters interpreted as follows. If the first character is: d entry is a directory; b entry is a block-type special file; c entry is a character-type special file; l entry is a symbolic link; p entry is a FIFO (also known as "named pipe") special file; s entry is an AF_UNIX address family socket, or - entry is a plain file. The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three bits each. The first set refers to owner permissions; the next refers to permissions to others in the same user-group; and the last refers to all others. Within each set the three characters indicate permission respectively to read, to write, or to execute the file as a program. For a direc- to search the directory. The permissions are indicated as follows: r the file is readable; w the file is writable; x the file is executable; - the indicated permission is not granted. The group-execute permission character is given as s if the file has the set-group-id bit set; likewise the owner- execute permission character is given as s if the file has the set-user-id bit set. The last character of the mode (normally x or `-') is t if the 1000 bit of the mode is on. See chmod(1V) for the mean- ing of this mode. The indications of set-ID and 1000 bits of the mode are capitalized (S and T respectively) if the corresponding execute permission is not set. When the sizes of the files in a directory are listed, a total count of blocks, including indirect blocks is printed. OPTIONS -a List all entries; in the absence of this option, entries whose names begin with a `.' are not listed (except for the super-user, for whom ls, but not /usr/5bin/ls, normally prints even files that begin with a `.'). -A (ls only) Same as -a, except that `.' and `..' are not listed. -c Use time of last edit (or last mode change) for sorting or printing. -C Force multi-column output, with entries sorted down the columns; for ls, this is the default when output is to a terminal. -d If argument is a directory, list only its name (not its contents); often used with -l to get the status of a directory. -f Force each argument to be interpreted as a directory and list the name found in each slot. This option turns off -l, -t, -s, and -r, and turns on -a; the order is the order in which entries appear in the directory. -F Mark directories with a trailing slash (`/'), execut- able files with a trailing asterisk (`*'), symbolic links with a trailing at-sign (`@'), and AF_UNIX (`='). -g For ls, show the group ownership of the file in a long output. For /usr/5bin/ls, print a long listing, the same as -l, except that the owner is not printed. -i For each file, print the i-number in the first column of the report. -l List in long format, giving mode, number of links, owner, size in bytes, and time of last modification for each file. If the file is a special file the size field will instead contain the major and minor device numbers. If the time of last modification is greater than six months ago, it is shown in the format `month date year'; files modified within six months show `month date time'. If the file is a symbolic link the pathname of the linked-to file is printed preceded by `->'. /usr/5bin/ls will print the group in addition to the owner. -L If argument is a symbolic link, list the file or direc- tory the link references rather than the link itself. -q Display non-graphic characters in filenames as the character ?; for ls, this is the default when output is to a terminal. -r Reverse the order of sort to get reverse alphabetic or oldest first as appropriate. -R Recursively list subdirectories encountered. -s Give size of each file, including any indirect blocks used to map the file, in kilobytes (ls) or 512-byte blocks (/usr/5bin/ls). -t Sort by time modified (latest first) instead of by name. -u Use time of last access instead of last modification for sorting (with the -t option) and/or printing (with the -l option). -1 (ls only) Force one entry per line output format; this is the default when output is not to a terminal. SYSTEM V OPTIONS -b Force printing of non-graphic characters to be in the octal \ddd notation. -m Stream output format; the file names are printed as a list separated by commas, with as many entries as pos- sible printed on a line. -n The same as -l, except that the owner's UID and group's GID numbers are printed, rather than the associated character strings. -o The same as -l, except that the group is not printed. -p Put a slash (`/') after each filename if that file is a directory. -x Multi-column output with entries sorted across rather than down the page. ENVIRONMENT The environment variables LC_CTYPE, LANG, and LC_default control the character classification throughout ls. On entry to ls, these environment variables are checked in the following order: LC_CTYPE, LANG, and LC_default. When a valid value is found, remaining environment variables for character classification are ignored. For example, a new setting for LANG does not override the current valid charac- ter classification rules of LC_CTYPE. When none of the values is valid, the shell character classification defaults to the POSIX.1 "C" locale. FILES /etc/passwd to get user ID's for `ls -l' and `ls -o'. /etc/group to get group ID for `ls -g' and `/usr/5bin/ls -l'. /usr/share/lib/terminfo/* to get terminal information for /usr/5bin/ls. SEE ALSO chmod(1V) BUGS NEWLINE and TAB are considered printing characters in filenames. The output device is assumed to be 80 columns wide. The option setting based on whether the output is a teletype is undesirable as `ls -s' is much different than `ls -s | lpr'. On the other hand, not doing this setting would make old shell scripts which used ls almost certain losers. None of the above apply to /usr/5bin/ls. Unprintable characters in file names may confuse the colum- nar output options.