ls - list the contents of a directory

     ls [ -aAcCdfFgilLqrRstu1 ] filename ...

     /usr/5bin/ls [ -abcCdfFgilLmnopqrRstux ] filename ...

     The System V version of this command is available  with  the
     System  V software installation option.  Refer to Installing
     SunOS  4.1  for  information  on  how  to  install  optional

     For each filename which is a directory, ls  lists  the  con-
     tents  of  the directory; for each filename which is a file,
     ls repeats its name and any other information requested.  By
     default, the output is sorted alphabetically.  When no argu-
     ment is  given,  the  current  directory  is  listed.   When
     several  arguments are given, the arguments are first sorted
     appropriately,  but  file  arguments  are  processed  before
     directories and their contents.

     In order to determine output formats for the -C, -x, and  -m
     options, /usr/5bin/ls uses an environment variable, COLUMNS,
     to determine the number of character positions available  on
     one  output line.  If this variable is not set, the terminfo
     database is used to determine the number of  columns,  based
     on  the environment variable TERM.  If this information can-
     not be obtained, 80 columns are assumed.

  Permissions Field
     The mode printed under the -l option contains 10  characters
     interpreted as follows.  If the first character is:

          d  entry is a directory;
          b  entry is a block-type special file;
          c  entry is a character-type special file;
          l  entry is a symbolic link;
          p  entry is a FIFO (also known as "named pipe") special
          s  entry is an AF_UNIX address family socket, or
          -  entry is a plain file.

     The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three
     bits  each.   The first set refers to owner permissions; the
     next refers to permissions to others in the same user-group;
     and  the  last  refers  to  all others.  Within each set the
     three characters indicate permission respectively  to  read,
     to write, or to execute the file as a program.  For a direc-
     to  search  the directory.  The permissions are indicated as

          r  the file is readable;
          w  the file is writable;
          x  the file is executable;
          -  the indicated permission is not granted.

     The group-execute permission character is given as s if  the
     file  has  the  set-group-id  bit  set;  likewise the owner-
     execute permission character is given as s if the  file  has
     the set-user-id bit set.

     The last character of the mode (normally x or `-') is  t  if
     the 1000 bit of the mode is on.  See chmod(1V) for the mean-
     ing of this mode.  The indications of set-ID and  1000  bits
     of  the  mode  are capitalized (S and T respectively) if the
     corresponding execute permission is not set.

     When the sizes of the files in a  directory  are  listed,  a
     total count of blocks, including indirect blocks is printed.

     -a   List all  entries;  in  the  absence  of  this  option,
          entries  whose  names  begin  with a `.' are not listed
          (except for  the  super-user,  for  whom  ls,  but  not
          /usr/5bin/ls,  normally  prints  even  files that begin
          with a `.').

     -A   (ls only)  Same as -a, except that `.' and `..' are not

     -c   Use time of last edit (or last mode change) for sorting
          or printing.

     -C   Force multi-column output, with entries sorted down the
          columns;  for ls, this is the default when output is to
          a terminal.

     -d   If argument is a directory, list only its name (not its
          contents);  often  used  with -l to get the status of a

     -f   Force each argument to be interpreted  as  a  directory
          and  list  the  name  found  in each slot.  This option
          turns off -l, -t, -s, and -r,  and  turns  on  -a;  the
          order  is  the  order  in  which  entries appear in the

     -F   Mark directories with a trailing slash  (`/'),  execut-
          able  files  with  a  trailing asterisk (`*'), symbolic
          links  with  a  trailing  at-sign  (`@'),  and  AF_UNIX

     -g   For ls, show the group ownership of the file in a  long
          output.   For  /usr/5bin/ls,  print a long listing, the
          same as -l, except that the owner is not printed.

     -i   For each file, print the i-number in the  first  column
          of the report.

     -l   List in long format,  giving  mode,  number  of  links,
          owner, size in bytes, and time of last modification for
          each file.  If the file is  a  special  file  the  size
          field  will  instead contain the major and minor device
          numbers.  If the time of last modification  is  greater
          than  six  months ago, it is shown in the format `month
          date year';  files  modified  within  six  months  show
          `month  date time'.  If the file is a symbolic link the
          pathname of the linked-to file is printed  preceded  by
          `->'.  /usr/5bin/ls will print the group in addition to
          the owner.

     -L   If argument is a symbolic link, list the file or direc-
          tory the link references rather than the link itself.

     -q   Display non-graphic  characters  in  filenames  as  the
          character ?; for ls, this is the default when output is
          to a terminal.

     -r   Reverse the order of sort to get reverse alphabetic  or
          oldest first as appropriate.

     -R   Recursively list subdirectories encountered.

     -s   Give size of each file, including any  indirect  blocks
          used  to  map  the  file, in kilobytes (ls) or 512-byte
          blocks (/usr/5bin/ls).

     -t   Sort by time modified  (latest  first)  instead  of  by

     -u   Use time of last access instead  of  last  modification
          for  sorting (with the -t option) and/or printing (with
          the -l option).

     -1   (ls only) Force one entry per line output format;  this
          is the default when output is not to a terminal.

     -b   Force printing of non-graphic characters to be  in  the
          octal \ddd notation.

     -m   Stream output format; the file names are printed  as  a
          list  separated by commas, with as many entries as pos-
          sible printed on a line.

     -n   The same as -l, except that the owner's UID and group's
          GID  numbers  are  printed,  rather than the associated
          character strings.

     -o   The same as -l, except that the group is not printed.

     -p   Put a slash (`/') after each filename if that file is a

     -x   Multi-column output with entries sorted  across  rather
          than down the page.

     The environment variables  LC_CTYPE,  LANG,  and  LC_default
     control  the  character  classification  throughout  ls.  On
     entry to ls, these environment variables are checked in  the
     following  order:  LC_CTYPE,  LANG,  and LC_default.  When a
     valid value is found, remaining  environment  variables  for
     character  classification  are  ignored.  For example, a new
     setting for LANG does not override the current valid charac-
     ter  classification  rules  of  LC_CTYPE.   When none of the
     values is valid, the shell character classification defaults
     to the POSIX.1 "C" locale.

     /etc/passwd         to get user ID's for  `ls  -l'  and  `ls
     /etc/group          to  get  group  ID  for  `ls   -g'   and
                         `/usr/5bin/ls -l'.
                         to   get   terminal   information    for

     NEWLINE  and  TAB  are  considered  printing  characters  in

     The output device is assumed to be 80 columns wide.

     The option setting based on whether the output is a teletype
     is  undesirable  as  `ls -s' is much different than `ls -s |
     lpr'.  On the other hand, not doing this setting would  make
     old shell scripts which used ls almost certain losers.

     None of the above apply to /usr/5bin/ls.

     Unprintable characters in file names may confuse the  colum-
     nar output options.