NAME
     sed - stream editor

SYNOPSIS
     sed [ -n ] [ -e script ] [ -f sfilename ] [ filename ]...

SYSTEM V SYNOPSIS
     /usr/5bin/sed [ -n ] [ -e  script  ]  [  -f  sfilename  ]  [
     filename ]...

AVAILABILITY
     The System V version of this command is available  with  the
     System  V software installation option.  Refer to Installing
     SunOS  4.1  for  information  on  how  to  install  optional
     software.

DESCRIPTION
     sed copies the filenames (standard  input  default)  to  the
     standard output, edited according to a script of commands.

OPTIONS
     -n             Suppress the default output.

     -e script      script is an edit command for sed.  If  there
                    is  just one -e option and no -f options, the
                    -e flag may be omitted.

     -f sfilename   Take the script from sfilename.

USAGE
  sed Scripts
     sed  scripts consist of editing commands, one per  line,  of
     the following form:

          [ address [, address ] ] function [ arguments ]

     In normal operation sed cyclically copies a  line  of  input
     into a pattern space (unless there is something left after a
     D command), sequentially applies all commands with addresses
     matching  that  pattern  space until reaching the end of the
     script, copies the pattern  space  to  the  standard  output
     (except under -n), and finally, deletes the pattern space.

     Some commands use a hold space to save all or  part  of  the
     pattern space for subsequent retrieval.

     An address is either:

          a decimal number linecount, which is cumulative  across
          input files;

          a $, which addresses the last input line;
          or a context address, which is a  /regular  expression/
          in the style of ed(1);

     with the following exceptions:

          \?RE?
               In a context address, the construction \  ?regular
               expression?,  where ? is any character, is identi-
               cal to /regular expression/.  Note: in the context
               address  \xabc\xdefx,  the  second  x  stands  for
               itself, so that the regular expression is abcxdef.

          \n   Matches a NEWLINE embedded in the pattern space.

          .    Matches any character except  the  NEWLINE  ending
               the pattern space.

          null A command line with no address selects every  pat-
               tern space.

          address
               Selects each pattern space that matches.

          address1 ,address2
               Selects the inclusive range from the first pattern
               space  matching  addrress1  to  the  first pattern
               space matching address2.  Selects only one line if
               address1 is greater than or equal to address2.

  Comments
     If the first nonwhite character in a line is  a  `#'  (pound
     sign),  sed  treats  that line as a comment, and ignores it.
     If, however, the first such line is of the form:

          #n

     sed runs as if the -n flag were specified.

  Functions
     The maximum number of permissible addresses for  each  func-
     tion is indicated in parentheses in the list below.

     An argument denoted text consists of one or more lines,  all
     but  the  last  of  which  end  with  \ to hide the NEWLINE.
     Backslashes in text are  treated  like  backslashes  in  the
     replacement  string of an s command, and may be used to pro-
     tect initial SPACE and TAB characters against the  stripping
     that is done on every script line.

     An argument denoted rfilename or  wfilename  must  terminate
     the  command line and must be preceded by exactly one SPACE.
     Each wfilename is created before processing  begins.   There
     can be at most 10 distinct wfilename arguments.

     (1)a\
     text        Append: place text on the output before  reading
                 the next input line.

     (2)b label  Branch to the `:'  command  bearing  the  label.
                 Branch  to  the  end  of  the script if label is
                 empty.

     (2)c\
     text        Change: delete the pattern space.  With 0  or  1
                 address  or  at  the  end  of a 2 address range,
                 place text on the output.  Start the next cycle.

     (2)d        Delete the pattern space.  Start the next cycle.

     (2)D        Delete the initial segment of the pattern  space
                 through the first NEWLINE. Start the next cycle.

     (2)g        Replace the contents of the pattern space by the
                 contents of the hold space.

     (2)G        Append the contents of the  hold  space  to  the
                 pattern space.

     (2)h        Replace the contents of the hold  space  by  the
                 contents of the pattern space.

     (2)H        Append the contents of the pattern space to  the
                 hold space.

     (1)i\
     text        Insert: place text on the standard output.

     (2)l        List the pattern space on the standard output in
                 an  unambiguous  form.   Non-printing characters
                 are spelled in two digit ASCII  and  long  lines
                 are folded.

     (2)n        Copy the pattern space to the  standard  output.
                 Replace  the pattern space with the next line of
                 input.

     (2)N        Append the next line of  input  to  the  pattern
                 space  with  an  embedded newline.  (The current
                 line number changes.)

     (2)p        Print: copy the pattern space  to  the  standard
                 output.

     (2)P        Copy the initial segment of  the  pattern  space
                 through  the  first NEWLINE to the standard out-
                 put.

     (1)q        Quit: branch to the end of the script.   Do  not
                 start a new cycle.

     (2)r rfilename
                 Read the contents of rfilename.  Place  them  on
                 the output before reading the next input line.

     (2)s/regular expression/replacement/flags
                 Substitute the replacement string for  instances
                 of  the regular expression in the pattern space.
                 Any character may be used instead of `/'.  For a
                 fuller  description see ed(1).  flags is zero or
                 more of:

                 n           n= 1 - 512.  Substitute for just the
                             nth      occurrence      of      the
                             regularexpression.

                 g           Global: substitute for all  nonover-
                             lapping  instances  of  the  regular
                             expression  rather  than  just   the
                             first one.

                 p           Print  the  pattern   space   if   a
                             replacement was made.

                 w wfilename Write: append the pattern  space  to
                             wfilename if a replacement was made.

     (2)t label  Test: branch to  the  `:'  command  bearing  the
                 label  if any substitutions have been made since
                 the most recent reading of an input line or exe-
                 cution of a t.  If label is empty, branch to the
                 end of the script.

     (2)w wfilename
                 Write: append the pattern space to wfilename.

     (2)x        Exchange the contents of the  pattern  and  hold
                 spaces.

     (2)y/string1/string2/
                 Transform: replace all occurrences of characters
                 in  string1  with the corresponding character in
                 string2.  The lengths  of  string1  and  string2
                 must be equal.

     (2)! function
                 Do  not:  apply  the  function  (or  group,   if
                 function  is  `{') only to lines not selected by
                 the address(es).

     (0): label  This command does nothing; it bears a label  for
                 b  and  t commands to branch to.  Note: the max-
                 imum length of label is seven characters.

     (1)=        Place the current line number  on  the  standard
                 output as a line.

     (2){        Execute the following commands through a  match-
                 ing `}' only when the pattern space is selected.
                 Commands are separated by `;'.

     (0)         An empty command is ignored.

  System V sed Scripts
     Initial SPACE and TAB characters are not stripped from  text
     lines.

DIAGNOSTICS
     Too many commands
          The command list contained more than 200 commands.

     Too much command text
          The command list was too big for sed to  handle.   Text
          in  the  a,  c,  and i commands, text read in by r com-
          mands, addresses, regular expressions  and  replacement
          strings in s commands, and translation tables in y com-
          mands all require sed to store data internally.

     Command line too long
          A command line was longer than 4000 characters.

     Too many line numbers
          More than 256 decimal number linecounts were  specified
          as addresses in the command list.

     Too many files in w commands
          More than 10 different files were specified in  w  com-
          mands or w options for s commands in the command list.

     Too many labels
          More than 50 labels were specified in the command list.

     Unrecognized command
          A command was not one of the ones recognized by sed.

     Extra text at end of command
          A command had extra text after the end.


     Illegal line number
          An address was neither a decimal number linecount, a $,
          nor a context address.

     Space missing before filename
          There was no space between a r or w command, or  the  w
          option  for a s command, and the filename specified for
          that command.

     Too many {'s
          There were more { than } in the list of commands to  be
          executed.

     Too many }'s
          There were more } than { in the list of commands to  be
          executed.

     No addresses allowed
          A command that takes no addresses had an address speci-
          fied.

     Only one address allowed
          A command that takes  one  address  had  two  addresses
          specified.

     "\digit" out of range
          The number in a \n item in a regular  expression  or  a
          replacement string in a s command was greater than 9.

     Bad number
          One of the endpoints in  a  range  item  in  a  regular
          expression  (that is, an item of the form {n} or {n,m})
          was not a number.

     Range endpoint too large
          One of the endpoints in  a  range  item  in  a  regular
          expression was greater than 255.

     More than 2 numbers given in \{ \}
          More than two endpoints were given in a  range  expres-
          sion.

     } expected after \
          A \ appeared in a range expression and was not followed
          by a }.

     First number exceeds second in \{ \}
          The first endpoint in a range  expression  was  greater
          than the second.

     Illegal or missing delimiter
          The delimiter at the end of a  regular  expression  was
          absent.

     \( \) imbalance
          There were more \( than \), or more \) than  \(,  in  a
          regular expression.

     [ ] imbalance
          There were more [ than ], or more ] than [, in a  regu-
          lar expression.

     First RE may not be null
          The first regular expression in an address or  in  a  s
          command was null (empty).

     Ending delimiter missing on substitution
          The ending delimiter in a s command was absent.

     Ending delimiter missing on string
          The ending delimiter in a y command was absent.

     Transform strings not the same size
          The two strings in a y command were not the same size.

     Suffix too large - 512 max
          The suffix in a s command, specifying which  occurrence
          of  the  regular  expression  should  be  replaced, was
          greater than 512.

     Label too long
          A label in a command was longer than 8 characters.

     Duplicate labels
          The same label was specified by more than  one  :  com-
          mand.

     File name too long
          The filename specified in a r or w command, or in the w
          option  for  a  s command, was longer than 1024 charac-
          ters.

     Output line too long.
          An output line was longer than 4000 characters long.

     Too many appends or reads after line n
          More than 20 a or r commands were to  be  executed  for
          line n.

     Hold space overflowed.
          More than 4000 characters were to be stored in the hold
          space.


SEE ALSO
     awk(1), ed(1), grep(1V), lex(1)

     Editing Text Files

BUGS
     There is a combined limit of 200 -e and  -f  arguments.   In
     addition,  there  are various internal size limits which, in
     rare cases, may overflow.  To  overcome  these  limitations,
     either  combine  or  break out scripts, or use a pipeline of
     sed commands.